Moho Occupational Therapy (MOHO Model)


    Every occupational therapist been using MOHO model nowadays for understanding the dynamic system of a human in various condition. A most popular type of frames of reference. Different pattern directly or indirectly influence human daily basis, so how to collect evidence and assessment of particular subject through MOHO?

    I already discuss mental health occupational therapy, so review this also.

    Three factors influence indirectly or directly during assessment;

    1. Volition
    2. Habituation
    3. Performance

    Therapist alters Personal Causation and interest in different condition and gets the desired goal.

    Review: OT Frames of Reference

    1. Developed in the 1980s, has been revised 3 times
    2. Most using Model under OT Principal in various mental conditions for Acute Care, pediatric patient
    3. You have questions about MOHO, Ask us
    4. Many therapists combined practice with Volition Model for self-assessment study about the particular case


    What is Moho Occupational Therapy?

    MOHO Occupational therapy, short for Model of Human Occupation, is an occupational therapy framework that understands how human beings interact with their environment.

    It sees human beings as a medium that performs everyday activities, namely occupations, and analyzes how people interact with their environment while doing so. This interaction is referred to as an input to a system and the result is seen as a reaction of the input on the human body.

    The patterns and contexts observed by our body describe its behavior during occupational roles and it explains environmental influences on the body while undertaking an occupation.

    In human occupation, MOHO Occupational therapy recognizes three key elements that describe human occupation and it analyzes them. A brief description of each is listed below.


    Violation explains why some people view certain activities as meaningful while others don’t. The underlying concept is that everyone has a different opinion on a certain task.

    Some people smoke because they enjoy it while others see it as a harmful act. What describes this difference?

    MOHO recognizes this difference upon the basis of conceptual beliefs, preferences, values, and perceptions.

    It is what differentiates mass psychology from individual psychology. Violations, in short, explain the motivations that certain people have for certain tasks that others may not.


    Habituation explains why some people perform certain tasks whether they have a motivation for it or not. For example, someone may want to quit smoking but simply does it out of habit.

    1. Habits form a pattern or a sequence of events throughout the day that define a certain task at a certain time.
    2. We brush our teeth every morning, either before or after breakfast. What defines this sequence? Habituation does that.

    A habit is simply something that has developed over time and it explains our motivations for certain tasks. There are two kinds of inherent elements within habituation.

    Internalized roles, they explain why we act (out of habit) differently in different situations. We don’t always experience the same environment throughout our day and with respect to a different environment for a given time in the day, our habits and actions can change accordingly.

    Unconscious habits, which regardless of the time of the day shape our decisions and actions as they have been developed over a long time and they are now performed without some active decision making.


    Performance is like a sequencing step in which the system takes one input, reacts accordingly giving output and this output again becomes input which guides further actions.

    It is a skilled action and explains how people naturally react to certain situations. It is like a feedback channel which effectively changes according to a situation and the reaction observed.

    During an intervention, an occupational therapist uses this model to understand a client and his needs and then devises a plan that should best suit him or she develop ease of functioning during everyday activities.

    MOHO: where is it used and When?

    In a different condition, this model used by an occupational therapist. The goal is to improve person mental disorder condition through various assessments.

    1. Attention deficit
    2. Hyperactivity disorder
    3. Persons with traumatic brain injury
    4. Older persons with dementia
    5. Persons living with AIDS
    6. Adolescents with mental illness

    Almost every rehabilitation center, therapist clinics, nursing care facilities unit, hospitals, and other health care center, this Model has been suing.

    In such condition, MOHO model has been proven and testifies. Enhance the performance of Mind, boost motives and desires, community engagement and noticeably factors using in these techniques of occupational therapy.

    What you have More Information about MOHO Model of Occupational Therapy?

    Comment us about your questions relates to the MOHO concept and revised techniques in it. Example of a Particular disease or mental disorder influence positive with this model.

    Are there resources to apply this model in practice?

    Now, more than 20 assessments have been developed.

    Give us Article, Documentation, Proven Assessments and videos. We will share here with your profile or Bio.


    Rehabilitative Frame of Reference

    Biomechanical Frame of Reference


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